Pulmonary cement embolism following cement-augmented fenestrated pedicle screw fixation in adult spinal deformity patients with severe osteoporosis (analysis of 2978 fenestrated screws)
AuthorUlusoy, Onur Levent
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There is very limited information about pulmonary cement embolism (PCE) following cement-augmented fenestrated pedicle screw (CAFPS) fixation in the literature. The aim of this study to report the incidence of PCE following CAFPS fixation in adult deformity patients with severe osteoporosis and to identify risk factors such as; the number of levels, number of screws, and the cement volume used. 281 patients (204F, 77M) in whom CAFPS fixation was used during deformity surgery were included. All patients' routine postop 2 day chest X-rays and any available CT scans were reviewed by two radiologists. In patients with PCE, preop, early postop, and latest echocardiography studies were compared in terms of changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and right ventricular dilatation. Estimated cement volume used was calculated as: 2 cc (1 cc + 1 cc) per thoracic and 3 cc (1.5 cc + 1.5 cc) per lumbar levels, which are our routine protocol. Statistical analysis for risk factors was assessed with point biserial correlation test. Average age is 70.5 (51-89) and average follow-up is 3.2 years (2-5). A total of 2978 CAFPS were instrumented with a mean of 10.5 levels (2-16) in 281 patients. PCE was diagnosed radiologically in 46 patients (16.3%). Among these 46 patients, PCE was clinically symptomatic in only 4 patients. Overall incidence of symptomatic PCE was 1.4% (4 of 281). Symptomatic PCE was statistically significant: when CAFPS fixation was performed > 7 levels; > 14 screws were used, and > 20-25 cc cement was used for augmentation (r = 0.378). In PCE group, mean preop PAP values of 27.40 (20-37) mm/Hg increased to 32.34 (20-50) mm/Hg in early postop and decreased to 28.29 (18-49) mm/Hg at final follow-up. In symptomatic PCE patients, mean preop PAP values of 30.75 (28-36) mm/Hg increased to 45.74 (40-50) mm/Hg in early postop and decreased to 38.75 (37-40) mm/Hg at final follow-up. This study showed an overall 16.3% radiological PCE and 1.4% symptomatic PCE incidence when CAFPS were used due to severe osteoporosis. The symptomatic PCE risk was significant when CAFPS were > 7 levels; > 14 fenestrated screws; and > 20-25 cc cement volume is used and this may cause PAP increase and right ventricular dilatation. [GRAPHICS] .