DBS in pediatric patients: institutional experience
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DBS is initially used for treatment of essential tremor and Parkinson's disease in adults. In 1996, a child with severe life-threatening dystonia was offered DBS to the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with lasting efficacy at 20 years. Since that time, increasing number of children benefited from DBS. We retrospectively evaluated our database of patients who underwent DBS from 2011 to 2017. All patients <= 17 years of age at the time of implantation of DBS were included in this series. Subjective Benefit Rating Scale (SBRS), Hoehn Yahr Scale (HYS), Fahn Marsden Rating Scale (FMRS), Clinical Global Impressions Scales (CGI), and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGT) were used to evaluate clinical outcome. Between May 2014 and October 2017, 11 children underwent DBS procedure in our institution. Six of them were female and five of them were male. Mean age at surgery was 11.8 +/- 4.06 years (range 5-17 years). In our series, four patients had primary dystonia (PDY) (36.3%), three patients had secondary dystonia (SDY) (27.2%), two patients had JP (18.1%), and two patients had Tourette Syndrome (TS) (18.1%). Two JP patients underwent bilateral STN DBS while the other nine patients underwent bilateral GPi DBS. SBRS scores were 1.75 +/- 0.5 for patients with PDY, 3 +/- 0 for patients with JP, 2.5 +/- 0.7 for patients with TS, and 2 +/- 1 for patients with SDY. Mean FMRS reduction rate was 40.5 for patients with dystonia. Significant improvement was also defined in patients with TS and JP after DBS. None of the patients experienced any intracerebral hemorrhage or other serious adverse neurological effect related to the DBS. Wound complications occurred in two patients. There are many literatures that support DBS as a treatment option for pediatric patients with medically refractory neurological disorders. DBS has replaced ablative procedures as a treatment of choice not only for adult patients, but also for pediatric patients. Wound-related complications still remain the most common problem in pediatric patients. Development of smaller and more flexible hardware will improve quality of children's life and minimize wound-related complications in the future.