The Protective Effect of Losartan on Diabetic Neuropathy in a Diabetic Rat Model
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Aim: Involvement of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems is possibly the most frequent complication of diabetes. Important risk factors included hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and smoking. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE) inhibitors should be beneficial in all vascular beds, including neuropathy and retinopathy. In this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on diabetic neuropathy in a diabetic rat model. Material and Methods: 24 male, Sprague Dawley albino mature rats were divided into 3 groups; (1) control group: No drug was administered to the remainder of rats which blood glucose levels were under 120mg/dl, (2) diabetic control: rats were given no medication, but 4ml per day of tap water was given by oral gavage, (3) losartan groups: rats were given 10mg/kg/day oral of losartan for 4 weeks. Electromyography (EMG) was applied to anesthetized rats at the end of 4(th) weekend. Then, the animals were euthanized and sciatic nerve was performed for histopathological examination. Results: Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) amplitude of diabetic rats receiving the Saline in the EMG was significantly reduced when compared to the control group. Distal latency value and CMAP duration of diabetic rats receiving the saline were meaningfully increased when compared to the control group. CMAP amplitude and CMAP duration of diabetic rats receiving the Losartan treatment in the EMG were meaningfully reduced when compared to diabetic rats receiving the Saline. Perineural thickness in the rats receiving the Losartan treatment was found to be significantly reduced when compared to the group receiving the Saline. Conclusions: As a result, it has been shown in this study that perineural thickness of the Losartan treatment was significantly reduced when compared to saline receiving group, significantly increased the immunoexpression of NGF, and also provided a significantly recovery in EMG when compared to Saline receiving group.